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Giuseppe Verdi

Il Trovatore

Librettist: Salvatore Cammarano
Based on El Trovador a play by Antonio Garcia Gutiérrez.

Cast of Characters

  • Leonora, (soprano) Lady-in-waiting at an Aragonese court
  • Inez, (soprano) her companion
  • Azucena, (mezzo-soprano) Gypsy woman
  • Manrico, (tenor) Troubadour, officer in the service of the Count of Biscay
  • Ruiz, (tenor) his aide
  • Count di Luna, (baritone) Aragonese nobleman
  • Ferrando, (bass) Captain of Aragonese Palace guard
  • Soldiers, Gypsies, guardsmen, messengers, jailers, nuns and palace attendants.


Fifteenth century Spain


19th January 1853; Teatro Apollo, Rome.


It seems the old Count di Luna, dead for sometime, had two sons almost the same age. An old Gypsy, Azucena's mother, had been discovered in the room with one of the sons. The child's health began to fail and it was believed she had bewitched the child. She was caught and burned at the stake. Azucena, the old Gypsy's daughter, witnessed these events and swore vengeance. One evening, she kidnapped the baby her mother had "cursed" and hurried to the scene of the execution. She was about to throw the baby into the flames when over come with emotions, she tossed her own child into the flames. She told no one her secret and instead raised the boy herself - Manrico. Manrico is in love with Leonora whom is also coveted by Count di Luna. The two fight over her until the Count gains the upper hand by imprisoning Azucena and Manrico. He orders Manrico be-headed and learns only too late that Manrico is his long-believed dead brother.

Memorable sections of music

Tacea la notte
Trio: Di geloso amor sprezzato
Anvil Chorus
Mal Reggendo
Il balen del suo sorriso
Giorni poveri vivea
Ah, sì, ben mio
Di quella pira
Ai nostri monti

Copyright © 1996, Stephen L. Parker.